Because of the scale, global reach, and rapid production of online content, aggressive The fight against terrorism has been a frequently-invoked justification for Many of the same countries block gambling, the second most. This list of Internet censorship and surveillance in Europe provides information on the types Prior to the blocking of remote gambling sites in the Internet in Estonia was free The five Nordic countries—Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland—are central players in the European battle between file sharers.
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Second, the domains for which we saw errors should not be equally distributed among content categories: one or more content categories for instance, pornography or gambling should contain most if not all of the errors. October The increase in religious blocking intersects with political censorship to the extent that political opposition actors happen to be religious players or belong to a religious sect that is not officially sanctioned by the state. Main article: Internet censorship and surveillance in Slovenia. Internet An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet. We begin by summarizing the approaches and tools that governments have at their disposal to address unwanted content online. Retrieved 25 January BBC News. The software factored in such metrics as the presence of a block page, evidence of DNS tampering, and various connection errors. The absence of overt state-mandated Internet filtering in Russia before had led some observers to conclude that the Russian Internet represents an open and uncontested space. For example: . While the adoption of HTTPS by key highly visited websites such as Wikipedia results in greater accessibility in some countries, other government censors choose to block these platforms entirely. According to its transparency reports, Twitter received 5, court orders and other legal requests from Turkish authorities for content to be removed from Twitter in Chadwick, Andrew We find that several countries in the region target content related to the ongoing conflict in Yemen, and that filtering practices, which historically have focused on non-state sources, now include a primary focus on the information and news produced by rival governments. Two notable trends are closely tied: the increasing migration of content and communication to centralized platforms and apps, and the expanding use of encrypted connections by websites and platforms. It has also recently expanded blocking in the conflict category to include media websites originating from its regional rival, Saudi Arabia. Previously blocked. Retrieved 30 January Namespaces Article Talk. Retrieved 21 March Another way to deal with content hosted outside a government's jurisdiction is to filter traffic: a primary focus of this study, which we present in the next section. Please help improve this article if you can. Columbia Law Review. Cisco is also accused of aiding the Chinese government in monitoring and apprehending members of the banned Falun Gong group. Protecting existing economic interests is an additional emergent motive for Internet filtering. The default implementation of encrypted connections by major social media and content hosting platforms along with messaging applications has effectively downgraded the filtering apparatuses used by states that filter the Internet by counting on "deep packet inspection" or URL analysis to intercept unwanted connections as users attempt to forge them. Costigan, Christopher () 'Top 5 Online Gambling Scandals of All Time'. Boycott against Apartheid South Africa: A Case of Defensible Censorship?
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The media, for example, were blamed for inciting violence that left 1, dead and , displaced after Kenya's presidential election. Financial Times. Additionally, Egypt recently blocked a website that protests the government's transfer of two islands from Egypt to Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 30 September Although they block content in fewer categories than other countries do, the depth of filtering in the categories that they filter is high. Main article: Internet censorship in Romania. Christian Science Monitor. However, NGOs criticize gaps in the law that allow the prosecution service to request such data directly from the service providers without court authorization. While the core strategies for restricting Internet content have changed little over the past two decades, there have been consequential changes in the economic, political, social, and technological context. Corporate Corporate liability Competition Mergers and acquisitions Monopoly Legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Conde Nast Digital. Archived from the original on 23 September While censorship is not widespread, there are laws that allow blocking of offensive sites or media on websites unwilling to pay licensing fees. Main article: Internet censorship and surveillance in Montenegro. First, the same error should exist across multiple, unaffiliated domains. The term " splinternet " is sometimes used to describe the effects of national firewalls.
Most users who post online media practice a degree of self-censorship prompted by fears of regulatory prosecution. In addition to the country-by-country testing and analysis, we devised a research approach using the political backdrop of the Middle East and North Africa region to determine if state censors block access to websites that originate from or are affiliated with other states in the region based on the ongoing geopolitical conflicts and intraregional adversaries. Little or none. Main article: Content-control software. According to a website associated with the IGRC, the social media users "were carrying out immoral activities, insulted religious beliefs, or had illegal activities in the field of fashion. Despite the Malaysian government's guarantee not to censor the Internet,  research by multiple organizations has revealed evidence of Internet blocking in Malaysia. Politics inform censorship policies, which are used to advance political causes and hinder those of state rivals. More governments than ever before targeted social media platforms and messaging apps like WhatsApp and Telegram in an attempt to control the digital flow of information. To our knowledge, this tactic was first used by Nepal in February when all international Internet connections were cut when martial law was declared. An estimated 51 percent of the country's inhabitants used the Internet in No personal information that is considered sensitive—such as political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, ethnic or racial origin, sexual behavior, health, or criminal convictions—can be processed without the consent of the individual. The software factored in such metrics as the presence of a block page, evidence of DNS tampering, and various connection errors. Government funded program created in at Radio Free Asia to support global Internet freedom technologies OpenNet Initiative — a joint project to monitor and report on Internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations Peacefire — a U. These alternative strategies are most prevalent in countries that also aggressively filter the Internet. As major U. The extent of Internet censorship varies on a country-to-country basis. The most striking manifestation of the all-or-nothing choice sometimes left to governments that cannot influence individual platform providers is the rapidly growing incidence of Internet shutdowns around the world in response to social and political events. The law provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights. Uhh, IsoHunt? The constitution and the law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice. Therefore, as long as there is at least one publicly accessible uncensored system, it will often be possible to gain access to the otherwise censored material. However, these states have threatened their citizens with jail sentences and financial fines under cybercrime laws should they express sympathy towards Qatar on social media. Tensions that have led to increased filtering in the past year include the conflict between regional rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran, the armed conflicts in Syria and Yemen, and conflicts involving the armed Lebanese group Hezbollah and the transnational group the Muslim Brotherhood. This is the first time a website was openly blocked in Sweden. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 January The expansion of geopolitical filtering contributes to the pressure on the state censors who face the conundrum of overblocking or underblocking as more content around the conflicts is hosted on centralized platforms including social media.
The government also censors news outlets, medium. The law prohibits public denial, belittlement, approval, or justification of the Nazi genocide or other Nazi crimes against humanity in a print publication, a broadcast, or other media and the government strictly enforces these laws. However, the site was blocked in several areas which caused millions of posts on the site to become un-accessible. Little or no. Blockchain domain names are entirely an asset of the domain owner and can only be controlled by the owner through a private key. Main article: Internet censorship in Romania. The security services can access electronic data with judicial permission when investigating cyber and serious crimes. To what degree would you accept increased control or monitoring of the Internet if you gained increased safety? Because of the political friction between the two sides, the ISPs in Gaza block different political content. Main article: Internet censorship and surveillance in Slovenia. In this report we describe and document several key emerging trends that together fundamentally change the logic and application of Internet filtering. The constitution and the law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice. The Belarus government has moved to second- and third-generation controls to manage its national information space. The DoS attacks against Estonia May and Georgia August may be an indication of the government's active interest in mobilizing and shaping activities in Russian cyberspace. Moreover, pro-government actors are now more active in digital spaces than they were a few years earlier. The Great Firewall of China: The system can be subverted, but combined with China's and enforcement regime and the resultant self-censorship, it's very effective. what happens online,” Wired, casinoheryi.techchinafirewall. “Germany springs to action over hate speech against migrants,” Washington. Considering the technological characteristics of online gambling, individuals gambling advertising on the self and their willingness to support censorship.
Media related to Internet censorship at Wikimedia Commons. One seemingly small difference in a letter created a large change in the filtering of content. Effective Germany started enforcing the Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz NetzDG , a law that demands social media sites move quickly to remove "hate speech", "fake news" and "illegal material". The president has established a strong and elaborate information security policy and has declared his intention to exercise strict control over the Internet under the pretext of national security. It is a crime to disseminate information that is both untrue and damaging to an individual's honor and dignity. Across the different thematic areas, we find websites that are blocked from both the country-specific testing lists and the global list. Selective filtering is either narrowly targeted filtering that blocks a small number of specific websites across a few categories or filtering that targets a single category or issue. In September , a judge ordered to close or block all websites organising the Catalan independence referendum , including the whole subdomain gateway. There has been a notable increase over the past several years in the use of malware to conduct targeted surveillance of political dissidents, activists, and journalists. Of the 10 countries classified in both and , one reduced its level of filtering Pakistan , five increased their level of filtering Azerbaijan , Belarus , Kazakhstan , South Korea , and Uzbekistan , and four maintained the same level of filtering China , Iran , Myanmar , and Tajikistan. Retrieved 19 July The level of Internet censorship and surveillance in a country is classified in one of the four categories: pervasive, substantial, selective, and little or no censorship or surveillance. There have been instances of content removal involving civil court orders to remove inappropriate or off-topic reader comments from online news, discussion forums, and other sites. This includes countries where a small number of specific sites are blocked or censorship targets a small number of categories or issues. Internet filtering in Italy is applied against child pornography,   gambling, and some P2P web-sites. Retrieved 28 May Internet service providers in Iceland use filters to block Web sites distributing child pornography. Retrieved 8 November Nonetheless, over the last few years there has been a shift toward increased surveillance and police measures. Main article: Internet censorship and surveillance in Estonia.
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